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Evaluation and Scope of Palm Kernel Cake for Buck Fattening in Pakistan
By: Dr. Muhammad Afzal Rashid

Dr. Afzal Rashid received his Degree in Veterinary Medicine (DVM) from the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS), Lahore in 2003. During his DVM, he was awarded a merit scholarship for four consecutive years. After finishing his DVM, he joined the poultry industry in the private sector and worked there for four years. He also received a scholarship from the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan for an MPhil degree which led up to a PhD. He completed his PhD degree in Animal Nutrition in 2013 and has been working with UVAS as Assistant Professor in the Department of Animal Nutrition. Dr. Rashid was also a Visiting Researcher at South Dakota State University from March to December 2011 and received the HEC IRSIP Fellowship from this university. Dr. Rashid has been an advisor to MPhil and PhD students and has also been on the Graduate Advisory Committee for MPhil students. He has a total of eight refereed publications, an extension booklet, a popular press publication and has won three projects. He has participated in local and international conferences and has acted as a resource person in numerous workshops.
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Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a co-product of palm kernel oil extraction industry constituting approximately 50% of the kernel. Palm kernel cake (PKC) is known for its medium energy, moderate protein and high fibre contents, and has been used for ruminant feeding due to its high NDF contents. Pakistan is blessed with a huge population of livestock including goat, sheep, cattle and buffalo. Typically, all the classes of livestock are fed on conventionally available agro-industrial products mainly wheat bran and rice polishing to reduce the cost of feeding. Recent developments in dairy industry have led to greater utilization of local feed stuffs and consequent increase in their prices. Therefore, primary objective was to evaluate appropriate inclusion level of PKC in concentrate feed of bucks as an alternative to conventional agro industrial by products. Other objectives were to determine effect of PKC inclusion on intake, growth performance and structural development and feed efficiency. A total of n=18 male, Beetal bucks were randomly allocated to one of three treatments diets: Dietary treatments were: control (C), PKC 20 and PKC 40 concentrates containing 0%, 20% and 40% PKC, respectively. Concentrate diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous, and increasing PKC was replaced with commonly used agro industrial feed ingredients mainly wheat bran, rice polishing’s and maize gluten 30%. Animals were fed at 3.5% of their BW on TMR feed consisting of concentrate, chopped Alfalfa hay and green forage at 70%, 25% and 5% of daily DM allowance. Total duration experiment was 74 days including 14 days of adaptability period. Body weights and structural measurements were recorded at start and then on day 14, 28, 42 and 60 of experiment; whereas, feed intake was recorded on daily basis. Results revealed that dry matter intake, average daily gain, structural measurements and feed efficiency were not affected by the inclusion of PKC up to 40% in concentrate feed. In conclusion, PKC can be successfully used in buck fattening concentrate ration up to 40% without affecting the production performance. In Pakistan, the product holds a promising future to replace conventionally used agro-industrial by products.


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